Database management is the method for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and application programs, modifying it as necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted due to unexpected failures. It is an integral part of the overall infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.
A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, known as attributes, which provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most well-known database type currently. This design is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It is also simpler to update data because it does not require the changing of several databases.
Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational concerns, such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level determines how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of different external views (based on the various data models) and can also include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data in order to improve performance.